Sunday, May 24, 2020

Detecting Plagiarism in Academic Writings

In the modern society, the problem of plagiarism occurs really often. People who use online or other sources do not always cite them properly. Plagiarism is considered to be an academic dishonesty that is why instructors do everything possible to detect and determine the plagiarism in the academic writings. This will not only find dishonest students, but will prevent them from plagiarizing again. Nowadays there are a lot of techniques which will help to detect and to determine plagiarism in the academic papers. These techniques are very helpful for the instructors in schools, colleges and universities. First of all, you can determine plagiarism by analyzing the format of the paper. Main errors that can signal about plagiarism in the paper are: the format of the paper is not according to the assignment that was given, line or page breaks are at odd places, URL or article number at the and of the writing, odd phrases like click here. All of the following signs may indicate that the paper was copied directly from the internet. Citations can also help to determine plagiarism in the paper. Usually plagiarized papers contain very old citations. Also try to match references listed at the end of the writing with the in-text-citations. If they do not match this is a sign that the paper may be plagiarized. Check the content of the paper. There are few basic signs of plagiarism that can be found: the paper doesnt exactly match the assignment, the paper is not unified and seems to be cut out from different places. Another way to check the research paper for plagiarism is to check its style. The style of the paper may differ from the students previous works; level of writing is much higher than others; the style of the paper doesnt match to the required. One more very efficient way to check whether the paper is plagiarized is to ask the student questions about the material in the paper or about this specific subject. Also you can ask the student to make a brief verbal summery of his/her paper. The answer will help instructor to identify whether the student wrote the paper himself. Checking the reference page can help a lot. Check the original sources that provided in the reference list and look through them. Also you can submit some unique words from the paper to Google, for example. This can help to find some online sources from where the student could plagiarize. You can also check term paper mills. Nowadays there is a lot of plagiarism detective software available. For example, EVE 2.2. Also a paper can be check by submitting to It compares the paper to the Internet sources and to other papers. There are also some similar online links to determine the plagiarism like:, InteqriGuard and MOSS. To check the paper online is one of the easiest ways to determine the plagiarism. All of the ways to determine plagiarism that are listed above can be very helpful. Careful evaluation of the paper and checking all the sources will indicate whether the paper was plagiarized.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Character Analysis of Gertrude in William Shakespeares...

Hamlet: Argumentative Essay Introduction The purpose of this essay is to analyze the role of Gertrude in Hamlet, which is counted as one of the famous plays of English language (Thompson and Neil Taylor 74) and the most popular work of Shakespeare (Wells and Stanton 1). This essay will evaluate the role of Gertrude, who was the mother of Prince Hamlet and also the title character of the play. Thesis Statement: Gertrude, the wife of late King Hamlet was disloyal to her husband and also responsible for his death. Gertrude The Queen of Denmark Gertrude the widow of the late King Hamlet married her husbands brother Claudius only after two months of her husbands death. Claudius who was also the uncle of Prince Hamlet became the new King and his new father. Despite the fact that Gertrude has very little role and few lines in the play still she is central to the action of the play. Prince Hamlet hatred and disgust for her mother as she marries Claudius, is one of the main important reflections of the play. This is because in times of Shakespeare, marrying husbands brother after husbands death was considered as a sin and act of being disloyal with the husband. Secondly, Prince Hamlet also considered Claudius inferior to his father, the late King Hamlet, in all aspects of life. Gertrude deeply loved her son and was very much concerned about his depression and gloominess (Barrons, 93) but Hamlet hated her. He considered her responsible for his fathers deathShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis of Queen Gertrudes Position in King Hamlets Death in William Shakespeares Hamlet1056 Words   |  5 PagesAn Analysis of Queen Gertrudes Position in King Hamlets Death in William Shakespeares Hamlet Usually in a playwright, one of the authors objectives is to keep the viewer or reader confused or disconcerted about certain events in the plot. 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Hamlet can serve as a metaphor for lion king and the long-termRead MoreHamlet Problem Essay887 Words   |  4 PagesTragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark: Why did Gertrude Marry Claudius? Claudius classified his marriage to Gertrude as an equal scale weighing delight and dole (1.2.12). However, the audience of William Shakespeares play, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, has a hard time comprehending exactly what drove Gertrude to her hasty marriage a mere two months after the death of her husband. Character analysis along with evidence taken from the play makes the answer obvious. Gertrude marriedRead MorePerfect Idealism In Shakespeares Hamlet1631 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The play Hamlet is a fable of how the ghost of a slain king comes to haunt the living with disastrous consequences. A rancorous ghost and a brother s murder, lead the gloomy setting of Hamlet s Denmark. Hamlet story opens with an encounter between young Hamlet, his dad s ghost as well as the prince of Denmark. The ghost reveals to Hamlet that its murderer was his brother Claudius, who then rapidly wedded his widowed queen, Gertrude. As a result, the ghost presses Hamlet to seek vengeanceRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet1482 Words   |  6 PagesIn one of William Shakespeare’s most notorious plays, Hamlet, Shakespeare uses multiple scenes filled with drama to add a certain extreme dimension to the play. In a story filled with drama, such as Hamlet, an author attempts to use intense dialogue and actions in order to invoke personal emotions and feelings in the hearts of the audience. Shakespeare attempted to have the audience feel the pain that Hamlet experienced, sense the f eelings of revenge that were deep in the heart of the prince, andRead MoreThe Symbolism of Ophelia’s Character Essay733 Words   |  3 PagesSymbolism of Ophelia’s Character The name Ophelia has been most commonly associated with William Shakespeares play, Hamlet, where she is referred to as the title characters mad lover. She is believed to have killed herself out of madness by drowning herself in a river. Interpretations about Ophelias character have ranged from being a woman who lost her sanity upon her father, Polonius death to being the object of hatred by Hamlet. However, despite her supporting character in the play, her personalityRead MoreThe Analysis of the Character Ophelia on Hamlet Essay1297 Words   |  6 PagesIn William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Ophelia is the most static character in the play. Instead of changing through the course of the play, she remains suffering in the misfortunes perpetrated upon her. She falls into insanity and dies a tragic death. Ophelia has issues surviving without a male influence, and her downfall is when all the men in her life abandon her. Hamlet’s Ophelia, is a tragic, insane character that canno t exist on her own. In Elizabethan times, Ophelia is restricted as a woman. She

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

360-Degree Performance Reviews Provide Greater Feedback in Healthcare Free Essays

string(31) " multiple sources is required\." Abstract Healthcare organizations have a unique set of challenges, particularly when it comes to measuring performance and understanding development needs. Some are strong at measuring clinical or functional skills. Yet few are equally adept at assessing the non-clinical skills that are so important to overall success in a healthcare organization. We will write a custom essay sample on 360-Degree Performance Reviews Provide Greater Feedback in Healthcare or any similar topic only for you Order Now 360-degree feedback can play a significant role in understanding the other side of performance, those skills that are not directly tied to day-to-day, job specific ability. Rather than relying on the perceptions of one individual, 360-degree feedback takes into account multiple perspectives. This is especially important when one person (i. e. , the employee’s manager) does not have the opportunity to observe all areas of the employee’s performance. Those working alongside the employee, along with the supervisor, are generally able to provide a more comprehensive look at the employee’s behavior and/or performance. 360-Degree Performance Reviews Provide Greater Feedback in Healthcare I. Introduction Performance of individual employees is central to the long-term success of an organization. Healthcare organizations have a unique set of challenges, particularly when it comes to measuring performance and understanding development needs. Some are strong at measuring clinical or functional skills. Yet few are equally adept at assessing the non-clinical skills that are so important to overall success in a healthcare organization. Clinical, or functional, ability is at the base of healthcare performance. However, possessing these skills does not always ensure success. Unfortunately, many organizations ignore â€Å"soft side† skills like communication and relationship management, viewing these interpersonal and behavioral skills as â€Å"nice to have† qualities. Yet lack of interpersonal performance is something that generally cannot be compensated for by even the strongest of clinical skills (Maylett, 2009). II. Expectations of the Consumer Issues of performance and productivity are continuously being scrutinized by the leaders of healthcare organizations. Although cost is urrently the driving force for health care system reform, there is still great concern for the quality of the health care provided. Consumers of healthcare services are now asking â€Å"How can I get the best care for the least amount of money? † This means that for an organization to gain competitive advantage, they must make sure that not only is the quality of care high, but the cost must al so be reasonable when compared to other providers of similar services. Equally important for the healthcare organization to recognize is that the definition of quality performance is not â€Å"value-neutral†. Standards are continuously evolving to reflect changes in values, new scientific findings, new technology, changes in regulatory requirements and laws and changes in the healthcare market place. The changes in these standards reflect the differences between the purchaser and the patient. The healthcare purchaser is concerned how effectively their dollars are spent and getting the most care for their money, while the patient expects the healthcare provider to be responsive to their individual needs (Popovich, 1998). Currently, the Joint Commission requires accredited healthcare organizations to assess, track and improve the competence of all employees (Fried Fottler, 2008). In addition, the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Awards best business practices includes a model that is being increasingly followed by the healthcare industry that addresses key human resource practices directed toward creating a high performance workplace and toward developing staff by performance management systems (Kuzmits, Adams, Sussman Rabo, 2004). As cost stabilizes and becomes more aligned across providers, quality will become more important in deciding which organization or provider to use. According to the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, â€Å"accurate, complete and relevant performance data can provide users of organizational services with objective evidence on which quality judgments can be based. † Patients and consumers now consistently assess the performance history of healthcare providers, organizations and systems. Therefore, those providers should be assessing their performance to help identify opportunities for improvement (Popovich). III. Performance Assessment and Management Having a well-functioning performance management system can help the organization determine several things, including the effectiveness of their selection process, the effectiveness of their training mechanisms and whether the organization’s compensation program is effective at driving employees to perform at a higher level. Performance management refers to a set of tools and practices that consists of setting goals with employees, designing strategies to make and sustain improvement, monitoring progress toward achieving goals, ongoing feedback and coaching by supervisors and peers, and measuring individual performance. Supervisors and employees tend to be uneasy about performance management and reviews, considering the process uncomfortable, highly unproductive and sometimes even unnecessary. Managers are often uncomfortable with sitting down to discuss concerns about performance with employees and employees often feel as though their managers are being critical and condescending during the process. Complicating matters is that performance appraisals and reviews can be extremely emotional, especially when directly tied to an employee’s potential compensation. Traditional performance appraisals have involved the employee’s manager collecting information about the employee, observing their performance and then sharing that information back with the employee. The review may include discussions about promotion, change in compensation, disciplinary action, transfer or recommendations for training. One concern with these types of assessments is that they are often subject to the biases and subjectivity of a single individual. Given the complexity of most healthcare jobs, it is often unrealistic for one individual to accurately describe the employee’s performance. In addition, traditional performance appraisal done purely for administrative reasons may be less than adequate for encouraging development, career planning or performance improvement (Jackson Greller, 1998). Another concern with the traditional single source performance appraisal is that supervisors only view performance from one perspective and often cannot directly observe employee performance. Furthermore, supervisor-based appraisal systems do not easily capture many important employee contributions, such as helping and training coworkers and being good team players (Fedor, Bettenhausen Davis, 1999). IV. Multi-source, or 360-degree, Performance Reviews Assessing performance in today’s complex health care environment resents a challenge to the healthcare profession. In order to effectively evaluate performance within this complex and evolving environment, evaluation from multiple sources is required. You read "360-Degree Performance Reviews Provide Greater Feedback in Healthcare" in category "Papers" Among the most useful ways to collect job performance information is to use multiple sources, or 360-degree feedback. This method recognizes that for most positions, relying on one source of information about an employee’s performance leads to incomplete and often inaccurate information. This is especially important when one person (i. e. the employee’s supervisor) does not have the opportunity to observe all areas of the employee’s performance. Those working alongside the employee, along with the supervisor, are generally able to provide a more comprehensive look at the employee’s behavior and/or performance. Feedback is a vital part of performance, growth and development. Understanding ourselves and how we interact with others helps us to understand what impact we have on those around us. A 360-degree assessment provides a comprehensive summary of an employee’s skills, abilities, styles and job-related competencies. The logic underlying 360-degree feedback is that there are many sources of information in organizations, and much of that information is available both to the manager and to the employee. Co-workers, customers, other managers and even the employee themselves can be sources of feedback (Jackson Greller). Simply put, 360-degree feedback is a method for evaluating an employee’s performance based upon feedback from everyone with whom the individual comes in contact – supervisors, coworkers, partners, subordinates, even the general public. This type of feedback helps employees see themselves as others see them and allows them to seriously examine their behavior. It allows them to understand how others view their effectiveness and become more cognizant of how their effectiveness as an individual, co-worker or employee is perceived by others. It can reveal areas in which employees are performing particularly well and those areas in which there is room for improvement. 360-degree feedback provides the employee and the organization with a wealth of information including the following: †¢ an increase in self-knowledge for the employee encourages continuous learning †¢ stimulates the employee to enhance their strengths †¢ identifies areas that need development or improvement †¢ provides guidance for positive change †¢ supports coaching and mentoring initiatives This information helps to build a partnership between the individual and the organization to maintain the process of continuous growth (Bentl ey, n. d. ). This review process is also helpful for the supervisor – it can provide a more accurate assessment of an employee’s performance and help eliminate accusations of favoritism. The process provides greater objectivity and because it is submitted anonymously, it provides a supervisor with the most unbiased and accurate information from which to draw performance conclusions. This new level of understanding is invaluable as employees develop professionally. Recent studies suggest that a large percentage of workers who have participated in 360-degree reviews feel that the feedback was more accurate and more reflective of their performance than feedback from just one supervisor (Gallagher, 2008). Additionally, this information provides great benefits to the healthcare organization as well: †¢ it enhances employee morale †¢ aids in assigning work †¢ stimulates employees to improve their work †¢ provides a basis for employment termination for sub-standard performers †¢ assists in determining who should be promoted, transferred or given additional compensation †¢ reveals exceptional employee talents and skills †¢ uncovers weaknesses in the training program †¢ promotes confidence in employer’s fairness †¢ helps resolve disputes in arbitration cases †¢ offers a basis for employee guidance and counseling (Harrison, 1978). In healthcare organizations, multisource appraisal, or 360-degree feedback, can play a significant role in understanding the other side of performance, those skills that are not directly tied to day-to-day, job-specific ability. These include such things as how well the individual collaborates with other health professionals to achieve desired outcomes, how well they improve their knowledge and understanding of their own performance, how they keep up to date with new developments and the degree to which they are aware of their own strengths and weaknesses (Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario, 2009). Partly in response to concerns about performance and patient safety, and partly in response to demands for accountability to patients and funding agencies, the assessment of healthcare employee competence has received much attention. These concerns have shifted the concept of competence from a narrow definition of â€Å"clinical competence† or the ability to perform technical medical acts to â€Å"behavioral competence† which includes interpersonal and communication skills, judgment, relationship management and professionalism (Lockyer, 2003). Healthcare worker performance is recognized as being complex, multi-factorial and non-linear in nature. It is clearly influenced by the fact that healthcare workers perform within teams and systems and that their performance oftentimes is a reflection of the performance of the broader environment in which they work (Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario). While there is wide acknowledgement that faulty systems and processes within the delivery of health care may adversely affect patient safety, individual failures can also contribute to patient injuries and complications. At a minimum, healthcare worker competency must be assured to maximize patient safety, as well as to ensure that the highest quality of patient care is provided. In addition, providing feedback that helps coworkers develop their interpersonal and task-related skills can improve work unit performance and, possibly, make one’s job easier and their environment more pleasant (Fedor, Bettenhausen Davis). As a result of individual performance assessments, 360-degree performance feedback in healthcare has the added advantage of identifying organizational improvement opportunities. Individual performance problems may identify larger systems or team challenges within a department or organization. The identification of these issues may be useful in guiding quality improvement initiatives that can be undertaken by the healthcare organization (Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario). Multisource feedback is seen as potentially more useful than supervisor-only evaluations, especially in environments like healthcare organizations where the organizational structure is more flat and team-based (Rynes, Gerhart Parks, 2005). Most 360-degree feedback programs are strategic initiatives resulting in a tested method of improving productivity and job satisfaction. They are designed to support increased competitive advantage, development of leaders, increases in productivity, improved morale and job satisfaction and retention of high-performing employees (Bentley). Using 360-degree performance review models provides for ongoing measurement of healthcare delivery performance and subsequent assessment of the quality of that care. In addition, the models can be revised as needed to reflect the changes in the healthcare system and in the perspectives of the different sources that determine the standards that must be met and the resulting performance assessment. The 360-degree evaluation will help employees identify their strengths so they can build on them at the same time it addresses their skill gaps. It is a process that leads to continuous learning, team building, growing self-confidence and improved productivity. V. Conclusion A changing healthcare environment has resulted in an increased focus on performance, both at the organizational and individual levels. Healthcare managers and leaders face an increased need to focus on both operational, or clinical, performance as well as non-clinical performance such as communication, leadership and interpersonal skills. Performance measured solely from a clinical skills perspective misses a critical factor – behavior skills, or the â€Å"soft-side† of performance (Maylett Riboldi, 2008). Managers lacking in the non-clinical/non-functional side of leadership typically experience significant issues that eventually lead to decreased overall performance. On an organizational level, this could potentially result in high turnover, disengaged employees and lack of teamwork which will eventually impact patient care. Healthcare leaders are under increased pressure to raise the performance bar. Consumers and patients are demanding healthcare organizations deliver superior customer service and patient care in an often difficult environment. It is vital that healthcare leaders look at both elements of performance – the clinical AND the interpersonal. Each element plays a critical role in the overall effectiveness of the employee, manager and the organization and ultimately in the organization’s competitive advantage. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bentley, T. (n. d. ). Cumulative 360 Data Guides Strategic Planning. Panoramic Feedback. Retrieved from http://www. panoramicfeedback. com/shared/articles/hrdotorg. html. Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario. (2009). 360-Degree Physician Performance Review Toolkit. Ontario, Canada. Fedor, D. ,  Bettenhausen, K. ,  Ã‚  Davis, W. (1999). Peer reviews: Employees’ dual roles as raters and recipients. Group Organization Management,  24(1),  92-120. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID:  39161423). Fried, B Fottler, M. (2008). Human Resources in Healthcare: Managing for Success. (3rd ed. ) Chicago, IL. Health Administration Press. Gallagher, T. (2008). 360-Degree Performance Reviews Offer Valuable Perspectives. Financial Executive, 24(10), 61. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. Harrison, R (1978). Performance Evaluation in a Medical Environment. Medical Group Management, Sept. /Oct. 1978, 22-23. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. Jackson, J. , Greller, M. (1998). Decision Elements for Using 360 ° Feedback. Human Resource Planning, 21(4), 18-28. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. Kuzmits, F. , Adams, A. , Sussman, L. , Raho, L. (2004). 360-feedback in health care management: a field study. Health Care Manager, 23(4), 321-328. Retrieved from CINAHL with Full Text database. Lockyer, J. (2003). Multisource feedback in the assessment of physician competencies. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 23(1), 4-12. Retrieved from CINAHL with Full Text database. Maylett, T. 2009). Healthcare Leadership Looking Beyond the Clinical Side of Performance. DecisionWise Leadership Intelligence. Retrieved from http://www. decwise. com. Maylett, T. Riboldi, J. (2008). Guide to Using 360 Degree Feedback for Performance Reviews. Retrieved January 18, 2010 from http://www. decwise. com/pdf/DecisionWise-Whitepaper-Guide-to-Using-360s-for-Performance-Reviews. pdf Popovich, J (1998. ) Multidimen sional Performance Measurement. Journal of Nursing Care Quality. 12(4):14-21[Article: PDF Only]Retrieved from CINAHL with full text database. Rynes, S. , Gerhart, B. , How to cite 360-Degree Performance Reviews Provide Greater Feedback in Healthcare, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

Gay Marriages Essay Research Paper Today in free essay sample

Gay Marriages Essay, Research Paper Today in society there are many force per unit areas put upon people by others and their beliefs. One of the major force per unit areas it puts on people is the force per unit area of homosexualism and whether it is right or incorrect. Homosexuality is on the rise in the United States every bit good as many other states around the universe. Along with the rise of homosexualism is the rise of matrimonies that are taking topographic point in these socially wrong relationships. Throughout the state and in other states there has been a legion addition in the matrimonies of homophiles. Same sex matrimonies defy the Torahs of Christianity, and it is immoral in the eyes of society. Homosexuality in all states has been looked down upon and sometimes condemned. This resistance stems from the Holy Bible. The twosome in the Garden of Eden was a adult male and a adult female, non two work forces or two adult females. If God intended two work forces or two adult females to be together he would hold put two work forces or adult females in the Garden of Eden, giving them both the ability to hold kids or to reproduce with the same sex, but that didn T happen. God created Adam and Eve, non Adam and Steve, for the reproduction of life. God wanted adult male and adult female to reproduce with one another in order for the human race to go on. In the bible yearss, Jesus Christ did a batch of learning about matrimonies and the sacred bond involved between a adult male and a adult female. The word matrimony means a bond or a lifetime committedness between a adult male and a adult female. Aside from heterosexual matrimonies being socially and moral correct, work forces and adult females are complimentary to one another. As I said before matrimony is a bond between two accepting grownups of the opposite sex. It has besides been stated that the basic edifice block of society is a strong household. The household as a establishment begins really simple ; two people meet, start dating, so as clip goes on they get married, so the twosome has a kid. Heterosexual matrimony has besides been known as the best environment for the upbringing of kids. Surveies show that most kids who are brought up in a family with a female parent and a male parent are more productive in school and their societal life. The environment which offers kids the best chance to accomplish optimum development is one comprised of their biological female parent and male parent or a married male and female. It is in the kid # 8217 ; s best involvement that this environment be fostered and protected. Children do best when they have the personal engagement and material support of a male parent and a female parent and when both parents fulfill their duty to be loving suppliers. Surveies besides show that kids brought up in homosexual families have the inclination to hold more jobs in school, work, and happening friends who don t expression at them otherwise. Children have a cardinal autonomy involvement in having the attention, company and society of both of their natural parents. At birth, a kid has no material ownerships and no hope of independent endurance. Whether it is biological, or psychological, the bilateral bond that unites a female parent and male parent to their kid is all that ensures its endurance. A kid s adolescent old ages are really influential what type of grownup the kid turns out to be in the hereafter. A kid s ethical motives are instilled from a immature age. Same sex matrimonies can non transfuse any ethical motives or values in a immature kid. In order for a kid to larn, he or she must be in an environment for them to larn and a same sex matrimony is non one. Same sex matrimonies merely cause struggle, confusion, and jobs for the ki d, some jobs for the parents excessively. Same sex matrimony can do favoritism, uncomfortableness, and grief ; that s why it is considered immoral and noncompliant in the eyes of society. There are many provinces throughout the United States seeking to maintain homophiles from acquiring married all together. On September 21, 1998 President Clinton signed a measure denying federal acknowledgment of same-sex matrimonies, and that it was no error. It is non a great political issue for Clinton but it did anger his loyal homosexual constituency. Clinton has long been on record as stating he would subscribe the measure into jurisprudence, even though he has charged that many of its protagonists were merely seeking a manner to sock homosexuals and tribades. Clinton # 8217 ; s base on the matrimony issue, for many homosexuals, Markss another letdown in the same vena as the president # 8217 ; s wear # 8217 ; t inquire, wear # 8217 ; t state # 8217 ; military service policy. The jurisprudence leaves it up to each province to make up ones mind whether to acknowledge same-sex matrimonies. Clinton said the measure besides # 8220 ; clarifies, for intents of federal jurisprude nce, the operative significance of the footings # 8216 ; matrimony # 8217 ; and # 8217 ; spouse. # 8217 ; # 8221 ; In California the Defense of Marriage Act ( DOMA ) is a ballot enterprise that would protect matrimony as merely between a adult male and a adult female in California. The DOMA is needed to protect Californians from being forced to accept same-sex # 8220 ; matrimonies, # 8221 ; even if they are legalized in another province. Judges in three provinces, including Hawaii, Vermont, and Alaska, are endangering to legalise same-sex # 8220 ; matrimonies # 8221 ; really shortly. In Irving, Texas curates who perform same-sex matrimonies can be brought before church tribunals and charged with noncompliance, the United Methodist Church # 8217 ; s highest tribunal ruled. The tribunal announced the church regulation against same-sex matrimonies is a jurisprudence, non a guideline. Utah and Hawaii are two provinces extremely up on the subject of homosexual matrimonies. The province of Utah says that they are traveling to contend same sex matrimonies because they feel that it is unconstitutional. Some of the politicians in Utah say that Marriage is the footing of household life, and households are the cardinal to civilisation. Robert H. Knight, who is a politician in Utah, says that the jurisprudence does non know apart against homophiles, but it says that each sex must be represented in matrimony. The statements stemming from Hawaii are really similar to those coming from Utah. Peoples in Hawaii are oppugning the fact of whether it is morally right. Throughout this clip it has been apparent that Hawaii will interrupt on the jurisprudence but the inquiry still remain on whether it is unconstitutional. Freedom to get married does non intend one is free to get married anyone. The prohibitions on same-sex and plural matrimonies are based on the cultural position that male-female, monogamous matrimonial dealingss are basic to society. Consequently, it has systematically been stated that: The twosome is the basic unit of society. It is the unit of reproduction, the wellhead of the household and most frequently the precinct of love, love affair and gender. The sex-based categorization is well related to accomplishing the aim by excepting merely those twosomes who are as a twosome, biologically incapable of reproduction. In this respect, same-sex twosomes are physically different and non likewise situated to opposite sexed twosomes. Sexual dealingss is an built-in portion of matrimony and # 8220 ; work forces who wish to get married work forces # 8221 ; is non a category defined by its gender, it is a category defined by the sexual orientation of the members. Excluding same-sex twosomes does non give rise to a sex favoritism claim asking a heightened examina tion reappraisal. In matrimony one of the demands, being met is the demand to care for the spouse both physically and emotionally. Marriage is a countenance that should be taken in by a adult male and a adult female. Homosexual or same sex matrimony is on the rise in the universe today. Same sex matrimony defies the Torahs of Christianity, and is immoral in the eyes of society.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Evolution Essays - Biological Evolution, Evolutionary Biology

Evolution The origins of mankind is an extremely controversial issue within today's society. Scientists have a host of different theories pertaining to man's inhabitance of earth. Many disagreements arise between scientists who have different beliefs pertaining to where and how mankind arose. One such argument is the conflict involving the theory of evolution versus the theory of creation. After extensive scientific research, it is apparent that the theory of evolution is correct. Evolution is the theory that life arose by natural processes at an early stage of the earth's history and that complex organisms developed from simpler organisms by a process of slow change (Coren 209). It's the idea that new species arise from older species after thousands of years of gradual chemical, environmental, and genetic change (Coren 142). Evolution can also be described as the complex processes by which living organisms originated on earth and have been diversified and modified through sustained changes in form and function (?Evolution?). Scientists, looking for an explanation to the origin of man and other organisms created this evolutionism theory, which also presented answers to the many asked questions dealing with similarities between species. Unlike the theory of creation, which states that the complexity of life and different species can only be explained in terms of a supernatural creator or god who placed life on earth, the theory of evolution has a plethora of evidence proving it to be true (?Creation?). There are several different types of observations that support the theory of organic evolution as an explanation for the similarities and the differences among species. One such observation is in the geologic record. The geologic record is the rock scheme found within the earth's outer crust. By means of radioactive dating, the ages of rocks in many places on earth have been determined. It's a timetable of the earth's geologic history. This combined with the fossil record, another observation supporting the evolutionary hypothesis, has produced an apparent sequence of life forms from most simple to most complex during the history of the planet. Fossils are any remains or traces of a once-living organism, which are formed by preservation, petrifaction, or sedimentation. Organisms can be preserved and protected against decay by being trapped in amber, tar, or frozen in ice. The hard parts of an organism, such as shells or bones, can be preserved when the flesh of an organism has decaye d away. In other cases, materials of a dead organism may be gradually washed away and replaced by minerals from the water causing the organism to petrify, or harden. Imprints, molds, or casts left by an organism after it is enclosed in sedimentary rock and decomposed are also fossils, as well as footprints and tracks. The fossil record is the timetable of fossils found in within the earth's geologic record. Since the upper layers of sedimentary rocks are assumed to have been laid down over lower layers, the upper layers are younger than those deeper into the earth. Therefore, fossils found within the upper layers are also younger than those found within the lower layers. This combination of geologic and fossil records shows the progression of species as time also progressed (Coren 142). In reiterating the definition of evolution, we are reminded that gradual changes in one life form's anatomy, cytology, embryology, or biochemistry could cause for a new species to originate. Similarities in these categories link species together and are therefore studied to support evolutionism. In comparing anatomy, the structures of different organisms often show unexpected similarities. Cell organelles, such as cell membranes, ribosomes, and other structures found within cells, are also similar in organisms of all kinds, showing that comparative cytology can also shows signs of evolution. When comparing the embryos of different organisms, comparative embryology, similarities can be seen in early stages of embryos that are completely different at maturity. Finally, comparative biochemistry, which is the comparing of biochemical compounds, such as amino acids, can also show similarities in species, reinforcing the idea of evolution (Coren 143). As curiosity rose throughout much of the world, scientists began to question the existence of organisms and why some are so alike in so many ways and so diverse as well. Several theories have been proposed in

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The effect of performance management systems on employee engagement The WritePass Journal

The effect of performance management systems on employee engagement Introduction The effect of performance management systems on employee engagement IntroductionBackgroundThe research question Literature reviewEmployee engagementTheoretical context for employee engagementPerformance managementTheoretical context for performance managementIntervening variablesMethodologyDesign and procedureParticipantsModel specificationOperationalisation of variablesAnalysis LimitationsReferencesRelated Introduction Background Prior research has established the positive effects of employee engagement in the workplace, not only for the organisation in its entirety but also for the wellbeing and productivity of individual employees (Kahn, 1990). It is therefore of paramount importance that research correctly identifies the factors which give rise to increased employee engagement and investment in their job. Rich, Lepine and Crawford (2010) found in a study of 245 fire fighters that engagement, conceptualised as the investment of one’s complete self into a job role (the degree to which a job role is integrated into a personal construct) was a significant mediator in the relationship between value congruence, perceived organisational support, core self-evaluations and the dependent variable: job performance dimensions. Aside from the obvious benefits, including increased productivity and employee initiative, this also suggests that there are psychological perks for employees with higher rates of engagem ent. Increased self-efficacy, job satisfaction, self-esteem and morale have been found to be direct consequences of higher rates of employee engagement (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2008; Harter, Schmidt and Hayes, 2002). Employee wellbeing in the workplace is known to correlate with positive business outcomes (Harter, Schmidt and Keyes, 2003). Overall, engaged employees are more likely to view their job as meaningful, their management and leadership as above average, have better perceptions of their own ability to perform their duties and are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs, leading to a greater work ethic and better performance (May, Gilson and Harter, 2004). The research question The research problem we are facing is to determine the antecedents of employee engagement in the workplace. The questions that will be used to investigate this will query the relationship between management policy and employee engagement. The objective of this study will be to determine whether performance management strategies used by companies affects in any capacity the tendency of employees to fully engage themselves in the workplace. The experimental hypothesis will be that increased use of performance management strategies in the workplace increases rates of employee engagement. Performance management is the independent variable and employee engagement will be the dependent variable. This will establish whether one significant facet of management policy affects employee engagement; an important factor in predicting effectiveness in the workplace. However there are other factors which could potentially influence the dependent variable (employee engagement) which are beyond the scope of this study. There may be many aspects of the individual and their chosen career which affect how engaged they are regardless of management policy. In addition, Saks (2006) found that multiple facets of how an organisation handles employees work ethic determines how engaged they are in the workplace, including how much training is provided and perceived effectiveness of procedural justice at work. Isolating performance management will be one step in building a framework to more fully predict employee engagement. If the anticipated effects are discovered, this would be valuable information for businesses wishing to enhance employee productivity and satisfaction using the medium of employee engagement. By establishing the antecedents of employee engagement it will be possible to fill in another gap in the overall model presented by research to predict positive business outcomes. It has been vehemently established that employee engagement can indirectly affect this outcome, but the influences resulting in greater engagement have received relatively little attention. Performance management in particular was chosen since it encapsulates something that is under the direct control of businesses, and will therefore potentially offer an immediate and practical means for businesses to affect employee engagement. Literature review This section will incorporate definitions of the variables involved and the theoretical context of employee engagement and its antecedents. It will also cover some of the research into other factors besides the independent variable for this study which could reasonably affect the independent variable. Employee engagement The definition of employee engagement is surprisingly ambiguous in the literature, which led Macey and Schneider (2008) to gather and categorise the various definitions found in research. They found that authors generally referred to engagement in one of three broad domains; psychological state engagement, behavioural engagement and trait engagement. The effect of management, leadership, company policy and any performance management strategies employed by the business are of course effective only at the behavioural and psychological state level; trait level engagement is innate and relatively constant in each individual, and arises from various psychometric variables. The conceptualisation we shall settle on for this study will therefore involve only the psychological state and behavioural levels, since the primary independent variables of interest involve factors the business can influence to increase employee engagement. Theoretical context for employee engagement Within a theoretical context, employee engagement fits well into the explanatory remit of self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985). This theory postulates that different forms of motivation exist; autonomous regulation refers to all volition which originates from genuine internal desires, as opposed to controlled regulation in which the source of the impetus to act is external. In terms of engagement at work, autonomous regulation is desirable, as it results in greater initiative and productivity at a task. According to Meyer and Gagne (2008), who explored the underlying psychological mechanisms of autonomous regulation in the workplace, the key lies in satisfying basic psychological needs for competency, autonomy and relatedness. Performance management systems are likely to be a part of building the work environment which successfully cultivates these feelings in employees; giving them a sense that their needs have been met. Although of course there is certainly more involved in determining the extent to which employees are personally involved in their work than need satisfaction. Intervening factors are likely to include employee personal circumstances and the current economic climate. Performance management For the purposes of this study, the definition of performance management shall be the degree to which intervention by the business occurs to ensure recognition of above average performance, and involvement with offering incentives for increased productivity and work ethic. All other variables listed above which have been identified as causal antecedents of engagement will be considered as confounding variables in this study, and will be controlled for as far as possible. According to Roberts (2001), performance management involves the setting of objectives, the use of appraisal systems, reward strategies, training and feedback. This is a definition that can be more easily operationalized as the components are clearly divided which will make development of measurement scales for each subset simpler. Therefore these are the components that shall be measured as the independent variable in this study to make up performance management. Theoretical context for performance management Performance management affects employee perceptions and attitudes, which subsequently affect performance (Hartog, Boselie and Paauwe, 2004). This fits in with the theoretical framework which places employee engagement as reflecting attitudes and the meaning ascribed to job roles. It is therefore logical to expect that higher levels of implementation of performance management strategies would be significantly related to employee engagement. Although this theoretical framework does not leave much room for the inclusion of the position individual employees ascribe to their jobs in their lives. It is relatively simplistic in terms of modelling the expected effects, and there are likely to be confounding variables. Intervening variables Research has uncovered some general factors which contribute in various magnitudes to the level of employee engagement. Job characteristics (van der Broeck, Vansteenkiste, de Witte and Lens, 2008) perceived organisational support (including leadership), procedural justice, learning and training opportunities and performance management strategies (including rewards and recognition management) are all important in predicting the level of engagement an employee is likely to exhibit (Saks, 2006). This study will address one aspect of the bigger research question then; the explanatory power of performance management over employee engagement will be established. The issue will require further research to account for other possible influences on engagement, and potential interaction effects between independent variables. The originality of this study then lies in the examination of a relatively newly recognised concept (employee engagement) and shedding light on the specific relationship it has with performance management strategies, independent of other influences. Methodology This section will describe the proposed method of examining the experimental hypothesis, including how data will be gathered, what will be measured, and how the data will be analysed. Design and procedure Since the sample is limited to one business many confounding variables such as differing job demands and organisational structure can be eliminated. The samples will be taken from historical data, from employees working within a business with relatively low levels of performance management compared to similar organisations. The business under study will have to be one which has at some point implemented a new, more involved performance management strategy; this is how the independent variable will be manipulated. Both levels of employee engagement and performance management will be measured before the implementation of the new performance management strategy to serve as the control data. After the new strategy has been imposed and levels of performance management have increased in the business, the independent and dependent variable will be measured again, and this data will serve as the experimental condition. To establish the persistence over time of any significant differences in the dependent variable found to result from the change in performance management strategy, three samples will be taken at six month intervals after the implementation of the new strategy. If there is any initial difference in employee engagement between the samples immediately before and after the new strategy comes into for ce, the subsequent samples taken after the strategy has been present for some time will tell us about the long term effects of increasing performance management, otherwise the possibility remains that any effects are merely short term and fade when employees become accustomed to the new system. This will therefore be a repeated measures design. The rates of employee engagement will be compared between temporally differing samples, which will determine if changing levels of performance management alone were sufficient to affect a change in engagement, and how any effects persist, weaken, or strengthen with time. Participants Data will be gathered from secondary sources extant in the literature. The ratings of employee engagement and performance management strategies will be gathered from employees and managers working within the same business. Model specification The model we have to test (based on prior research in the area) places employee engagement as dependent in part on performance management. An a priori power analysis will be conducted on previous studies examining employee engagement to determine the expected effect size. Operationalisation of variables Performance management will be defined as the number of rewards and punishments handed out by senior management, the amount of time employees spend in training, and how often employees are appraised. Employee engagement will be measured with subjective rating scales and peer ratings. Analysis Statistical analysis of this data would include one-way analysis of variance. First performance management would be measured in each group to ensure that in reality there was a change due to the implementation of the new strategy. Then the degree of variability in engagement can be examined between conditions. The relative impact of increasing performance management can be examined in the short and long term, which could help in our theoretical understanding of the psychological underpinnings of any effects observed; if the effects change over time, this will provide clues for future research to investigate, and give use evidence to speculate further on why the change took place. This method of statistical analysis will allow for simple comparisons between control and experimental groups, and for different levels of the experimental condition, in this case the amount of time elapsed after the implementation of the new strategy. Limitations Since the data will all be gathered from the same business, many confounding variables will remain constant between groups, however this means the findings may be less applicable to other business contexts. There is also the fact that a substantial time will have passed between conditions, meaning there may have been other changes other than the independent variable under study, which could confound the results. All other pertinent factors will be investigated and accounted for in the final report to ensure they remain as consistent as possible. It is also essential to recognise the fact that different individuals harbouring different internal traits and psychological dispositions will be motivated to engage in their workplace by different factors which are meaningful to them personally. This is especially true between individuals with radically differing job characteristics and duties since they are likely to have different expectations of their job, and view their relationship to their job role differently. However the influences on engagement cited here have been shown to be generally applicable despite differing job roles. Psychological factors of unique individuals may also play a role in shaping how well specific employees fit into their job role. May, Gilson and Harter (2004) found that perceived meaningfulness of job role, perceived safety at work (including co-worker relations and perceived job security) and availability of psychological resources relevant to job demands are all positively correlated with employee engagement. Such factors may be positively influenced directly by effective performance management but are otherwise outside the scope of this study. The fact that different employees are likely to have been used between conditions (due to the time elapsed) could also pose a problem due to their potential to have very different opinions, experiences and traits relevant to their work life which could influence employee engagement. Limitations include the fact that not all influences on the outcome variable have possibly been considered in the analysis, although there are good theoretical grounds for including the variables that are present. There is likely a myriad of intervening factors affecting how much employees engage at work, but focusing on ones that are immediately under the control of the business administrators and relatively logistically sound to implement makes the most sense as a starting point for this line of research. References Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B. (2008) Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations.  Journal of Organizational Behavior,  29(2), 147-154 Den Hartog, D. N., Boselie, P. and Paauwe, J. (2004) Performance management: a model and research agenda.  Applied psychology,  53(4), 556-569 Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L. and Hayes, T. L. (2002) Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis.  Journal of applied psychology,  87(2), 268 Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L. and Keyes, C. L. (2003) Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies.  Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived,  2, 205-224 Kahn, W. A. (1990) Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work.  Academy of management journal,  33(4), 692-724 Macey, W. H. and Schneider, B. (2008) The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 1, 3-30 May, D. R., Gilson, R. L. and Harter, L. M. (2004) The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work.  Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,  77(1), 11-37 Meyer, J. P. and Gagnà ©, M. (2008) Employee engagement from a self-determination theory perspective.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology,  1(1), 60-62 Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A. and Crawford, E. R. (2010) Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academic Management Journal, 53(3), 617-635 Roberts, I. (2001) Reward and performance management.  Human resource management: A contemporary approach,  3, 506-558 Saks, A. M. (2006) Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement.Journal of Managerial Psychology,  21(7), 600-619 Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H. and Lens, W. (2008) Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction.  Work Stress,22(3), 277-294

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Response Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Response Paper - Essay Example .., University of..., [Address] Contact: Abstract The question of salvation by faith as opposed to salvation by the deeds have historically bothered Christian theologians of various stripes for centuries, being one of the key doctrinal issues in the Reformation debates. The purpose of this paper is to examine the key tenets of both doctrines, as laid out in respective epistles by Apostles Paul and James the Lord’s Brother, in order to support the author’s own view on this matter. Keywords: Pauline Christianity, salvation, faith, Epistles, James, Paul Salvation by Faith and Salvation by the Deeds: Paul’s and James’ Debate The problem of salvation and the exact requirements thereof have always baffled the Christian theologians and lay people alike. Its significance for the Christian doctrine cannot be overemphasized, because it is this aspect that represents a foundation for a Christian understanding of human connection with the Divine. Therefore any solutio n proposed for the definition of salvation and its requirements is bound to generate a vigorous theological debate. The two approaches to the issue of salvation that are most frequently found in doctrinal tenets of various Christian denominations is that of salvation by faith alone and the one of salvation by the deeds or works. ... As it is well-known, the main point of this Epistle is the one of a contrast between the former sinful ways of the Gentile Christians that used to be Pagans before forming part of the Church (Patzia, 2011). The ‘spiritual death’ that was once their fate before they awakened in Christ is conceived as having been lifted from this new believers by the grace of God alone, as it is affirmed that in the other case their souls would continue to be prey to Satan’s depredations (Patzia, 2011). Consequently, the new life of â€Å"good works† (Ephesians 2:10 New International Version) that the believers were bestowed with by God is not the result of the efforts of their own, but purely a Divine gift to them. Paul seems to proceed from counterpoising the world of flesh and â€Å"the cravings of our flesh† (Ephesians 2:3 New International Version) to the universe of God’s grace and mercy that are alone capable of delivering the believer from the clutches o f Satan, â€Å"the ruler of the kingdom of air† (Ephesians 2:2 New International Version). In this, Paul excludes the possibility of attaining salvation by one’s own works, as human flesh is inextricably bound to the world ruled by Satan and his minions. The famed quotation by Paul, referring to the fact that the salvation is carried out â€Å"by grace, through faith†, without any willful input by the believer, is the most vivid example of such Pauline reasoning. The Apostle apparently gives another reason for such phenomenon with regard to salvation, noting that salvation comes â€Å"not from works, so that no one can boast† (Ephesians 2:8 New International Version). In a more metaphysical sense,